NEW DELHI: The latest data released by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India shows that infant mortality rate for the country has come down to 32 in 2018 from 40 in 2013, a decline of eight points over last five years and an annual average decline of about 1.6 points. Despite this decline, one in every 31 infants at the national level, one in every 28 infants in rural areas and one in every 43 infants in urban areas still die within one year of life.
Madhya Pradesh paints a worrisome picture with the highest IMR at 48 and
has the lowest IMR of 7.
The Sample Registration System – Statistical Report 2018 also shows that the sex ratio at birth (SRB) for the country has gone up by three points to 899 girls per 1,000 boys in 2016-18 (three years average) from 896 in 2015-2017.
Chhattisgarh has reported the highest SRB (958) while
has the lowest (840). At national level, the SRB is 900 girls per 1,000 boys in rural areas and 897 in urban areas. In the rural areas, the highest and the lowest sex ratio at birth are in the states of Chhattisgarh (976) and Haryana (840) respectively. The SRB in urban areas varies from 968 in Madhya Pradesh to 810 in Uttarakhand.
Meanwhile, the data on infant mortality rate shows the decline in rural IMR has been to the tune of eight points (44 in 2013 to 36 in 2018) against a decline of four points in urban IMR (27 in 2013 to 23 in 2018).
In 2018, Under 5 Mortality Rate for the country has shown a decline of one point over 2018 (36 in 2018 against 37 in 2017). There has been a decline of two points in female U5MR during the period, while the male U5MR has remained the same.
The SRS is the largest demographic survey in the country mandated to provide annual estimates of fertility as well as mortality indicators at the state and national level. The present report contains data on fertility and mortality indicators for the year 2018 for India and bigger States/UTs. The estimates are segregated by residence and also by gender.
The report shows that the total fertility rate (TFR) declined from 5.2 to 4.5 during 1971 to 1981 and from 3.6 to 2.2 during 1991 to 2018. The TFR in rural areas declined from 5.4 to 2.4 from 1971 to 2018 whereas the corresponding decline in urban areas has been from 4.1 to 1.7 during the same period. During 2013-2018, there has been a decline of 0.1 point in TFR at the national level. However, the TFR of the country has been stable at 2.2 in 2018 and 2017. During 2018,
has reported the highest TFR (3.2) while Delhi and
have reported the lowest TFR (1.5).
In 2018, around 82.5% of the deliveries were institutional which includes government as well as private hospitals. The percentage of institutional deliveries in urban areas is 94.7 as against about 78.1 %recorded in rural areas.
The report also shows that at present, a rural woman (having a TFR of 2.4) at the national level would have about one child more than an urban woman (having a TFR of 1.7), on an average.